Title I, Part A (Title I) schools charging tuition for preschool
We know that many of you have questions concerning charging tuition for your preschool students. We hope the following guidance will help in your decision making process.
With respect to your questions about a Title I, Part A (Title I) schools charging tuition for preschool, as you know, the supplement not supplant considerations would be different for targeted assistance schools (TAS) than schoolwide program schools (SWP). Please see below for details.
A TAS school may use Title I funds only for preschool services that supplement those that would be available for Title I students from non-Federal funds in the absence of the Title I funds (ESEA section 1120A(b)). With respect to the question of charging tuition, one way that the school could use Title I funds for preschool in a supplemental manner would be to pay for preschool for the children selected as Title I students and charge the parents of other students. In this situation, the difference is that the parents of the non-Title I students pay tuition and the parents of the Title I students do not. If a school takes this approach, it must make sure that it follows all Title I requirements, including how it identifies the Title I children (i.e., the children whose parents would not pay tuition).
In terms of identification, preschool-age children residing in the attendance area of a TAS school who are identified as most at risk of failing to meet the State’s academic achievement standards are eligible to participate in a Title I preschool program (ESEA section 1115(b)(1)(B)). To identify eligible preschool children in a targeted assistance school, the school must use multiple, educationally related, objective criteria, such as teacher judgment, interviews with parents, and developmentally appropriate measures of child development. The use of family income as one factor in determining eligibility is allowable, but children should not be identified for a Title I preschool program solely on the basis of family income. In addition, certain children are “automatically eligible” to participate in a Title I preschool program (ESEA section 1115(b)(2)), including children who—
• participated in Head Start or a Title I preschool program at any time in the prior two years;
• received services under Part C of Title I (migrant education) in the prior two years;
• are homeless preschool-age children; and
• are in a local institution for neglected or delinquent children and youth or attending a community-day program for these children.
Finally, it’s possible that the amount of Title I funds available may not permit a TAS school to serve all eligible preschool children by paying their tuition. In that case, consistent with ESEA section 1115, from the universe of eligible children, the school would select those children who have the greatest need for special assistance to participate in the Title I preschool program by having their tuition paid.
If a SWP school operates a preschool program, in order to meet the SWP supplement not supplant requirement, the LEA must ensure that the school receives all of the non-Federal funds it would otherwise have received if it were not a Title I school, including those funds necessary to provide services required by law (ESEA section 1114(a)(2)(B)). Assuming that a SWP meets this requirement and its comprehensive needs assessment supports the need for preschool, the SWP could use Title I funds to pay for preschool services to children who reside in its attendance zone.
However, if a SWP school does not have enough Title I funds to pay for all preschool-age children residing in the school attendance area and wants to use Title I funds to pay for some children’s preschool tuition, it must establish and apply selection criteria to ensure that those children who are most at risk of failing to meet the State’s academic achievement standards are selected. In this situation, the school must use multiple, educationally related, objective criteria, such as teacher judgment, interviews with parents, and developmentally appropriate measures of child development, to determine those preschool children most in need. The use of family income is one factor that may inform whether a preschool child is most in need, but children should not be identified for services in a Title I preschool program solely on the basis of family income. Related to the specific issue of charging tuition in a SWP preschool, I am attaching a 2008 response to a question about whether a SWP, when it lacked enough Title I funds to provide preschool for all children who lived in its attendance zone, could charge some parents for preschool and not others.
We hope this guidance is helpful, but as always if you have further questions please don’t hesitate to contact us.
Have a great month and best regards,
Dr. Kristine Harms, EdD.
State Title I Director
TITLE I PROGRAM INFORMATION:
Don’t Change Records-Homeless Programming
Once a student is identified as homeless, the student must be identified in Infinite Campus by using a drop down box and then indicating the housing situation at the time of identification – see below.
The student must remain identified as homeless in Infinite Campus (and other student information systems) throughout the entire school year. Do not change the record in Infinite Campus. Students who become permanently housed during the school year continue to be eligible for services and their record should not be changed in Infinite Campus. When a student comes to your district, he/she may have a homeless designation. Do not change the designation. A district would have no reason to change a student’s homeless record once the student is identified.
SD DOE will collect the data at the end of the school year. After data collection, the designation will drop off the record for the beginning of the new school year. This information is included in the SD DOE Data Collections Desk Guide. The information was also included in our Fall Data Management training for district staff.
Your district McKinney-Vento homeless liaison and data staff should review your district’s M-V data now to ensure it is accurate. The most common problem is students not being identified in the system. SD DOE will pull the data at the end of the school year. One use of the data is to determine the Title I homeless set asides for the 2012-13 school year.
Title I LEA End of the Year Reporting—changes
The Department of Education has been working diligently on a longitudinal data system this year. As part of that process we are trying to streamline as much data as possible as we gather it between the several offices in the department.
The LEA Annual End of the Year Report will look much different this year and will be much shorter! Hold the applause, this means that the Title I teacher/coordinator for each school and/or district will need to work closely with the person that inputs data into Infinite Campus (IC). The Title I department will be extracting as much information from IC as possible for federal reporting. Some of the data that will need to be submitted via a separate report will include staffing information, private school information, homeless information, and N&D information.
With that being said, we know it will take some extra coordination this year to make this effort work, but we are confident the two sides can reconcile the data to be accurate. Christine Christopherson will be contacting districts with their specific information as it currently stands in IC and ask that it be cleaned up if necessary. If all goes well, the separate report will be very short. Our May 8th phone call will be dedicated to the report and provide guidance for filling out what is necessary.
Our May 8th phone call will be dedicated to the report and provide guidance for filling out what is necessary.
Title I Consolidated Application Feedback and Changes
Last month we asked for feedback about the consolidated application process from school districts and those that fill out the application. We had about 20 responses with both strengths and suggestions.
Some of the strengths of our state process included that the application is online and it rolls over from year to year and that makes the updates minimal unless the district makes some major changes. Some of the suggestions varied from changing private school questions to repetitiveness of questions to the length of application.
Our office was able to make a few changes with the repetitiveness of the preschool sections. Many of those questions will be streamlined and made into one or two narrative questions. We cannot eliminate those questions from showing up in middle school/high school areas as that would involve a programming change this year.
We will continue to look for other ways to help this process and with other change eminent in the future there are sure to be more to come. Feedback is always appreciated and when we can accommodate schools and districts to simplify paperwork it alleviates “extra” work for all.
Supplemental Education Services and Public School Choice
South Dakota has applied for a Flexibility Waiver from US ED that will eliminate the need for Districts to set-aside an amount equal to 20% of their Title I funding for Public School Choice (PSC) and Supplemental Education Services (free tutoring program). If this waiver is approved, South Dakota schools will no longer be mandated to provide either form of intervention for any of their students.
RFPs for potential providers for the 2012-2013 school year will be accepted and will be available beginning April 16, 2012 and due May 30, 2012, with the understanding that the program may be discontinued and the applications may be voided.
If the waiver is not approved, districts will need to proceed as usual as they prepare for the upcoming school year, including a budget item for the 20% amount. For further information or questions in general, please call Betsy Chapman, SD SES/PSC Coordinator at (605) 773-4712 or by email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Development and Early Childhood Education Programs
What does the research say about The Incredible Years? This early intervention program for students with special needs is the focus of the latest What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) research review, available now at whatworks.ed.gov.
The Incredible Years is a program that focuses on building the social and emotional skills of children ages 0–12 who have exhibited difficult behavior. Lessons cover recognizing and understanding feelings, getting along with friends, anger management, problem solving, and behavior at school. Parents are given training on how to provide positive discipline, promote learning and development, and stay involved in their children’s life at school. The WWC identified 166 studies of The Incredible Years for preschool children with disabilities in early education settings that were published or released between 1989 and 2011. Three studies are within the scope of the WWC Early Childhood Education Interventions for Children with Disabilities review protocol but do not meet WWC evidence standards. Seventy-two studies are out of the scope of the protocol due to ineligible study design. Ninety-one studies are out of the scope of the protocol for reasons other than study design. The lack of studies meeting WWC evidence standards means that the WWC is unable to draw any conclusions based on research about the effectiveness of The Incredible Years on preschool children with disabilities. Go to: http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/interventionreport.aspx?sid=586, to read the full report.
Two new WWC quick reviews are also available this week. See how the WWC rated the following studies:
- Middle School Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study: Findings After the Second Year of Implementation —This study examined whether a professional development program for seventh-grade mathematics teachers improved the teachers’ knowledge of rational number topics and the performance of their students on a rational number test. The study analyzed data on 89 teachers and about 2,100 students from 39 schools in six largely urban school districts. The study found no statistically significant difference in teacher knowledge of rational numbers or student achievement between treatment and control schools. The research described in this report is a well-executed randomized controlled trial with low attrition and meets WWC evidence standards. Go to: http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/QuickReviewSum.aspx?sid=181 to read the entire quick review.
- School-Based Early Childhood Education and Age-28 Well-Being: Effects by Timing, Dosage, and Subgroups —This study examined the effect of an early childhood education program on educational attainment by age 28, including on-time high school graduation, high school completion, and college attendance and graduation. Researchers analyzed data from 900 individuals who completed the Child-Parent Center Education Program for preschool and kindergarten and 486 individuals from similar backgrounds who completed alternative kindergarten programs through the Chicago Effective Schools Project. The study found positive, statistically significant differences on four outcomes related to educational attainment. Intervention group members completed 0.27 years more schooling, on average, than comparison group members. In addition, intervention group members were more likely to complete high school (82% versus 75%), graduate on time from high school (44% versus 37%), and attend a four-year college than comparison group members (15% versus 11%). The study did not find statistically significant differences on ever attending college or receipt of a postsecondary degree. The research described in this report meets WWC evidence standards with reservations. Individuals who attended the Child-Parent Center Education Program may have differed from individuals in the comparison group in ways not controlled for in the analysis. Go to: http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/QuickReviewSum.aspx?sid=182 to read the entire quick review.
Quick reviews assess whether a study’s design meets WWC evidence standards. The WWC does not vouch for study findings or confirm their correctness.
To see other WWC reports, go to whatworks.ed.gov and browse our topics. As the WWC continues its work to connect educators with the tools needed to make informed decisions, visit our website often and check your inbox for updates and new releases throughout the year.
Notice every student every day to build a learning community
When students know you see them as individuals, they feel more connected to their school. This helps build a learning community in your classroom. Noticing every student every day can have a big payoff.
Sometimes, the students who need positive attention most are also the students who are the toughest to deal with. Often, these may be kids who are unwilling or unable to participate in a dialogue with a teacher.
So the key is to find a neutral way to connect with every child. You need to find a way to indicate, "I know you're here. But you don't necessarily have to respond to me."
Here are some examples of simple ways to notice your students in a low-key but supportive way:
• "You got new glasses--I like them."
• "It seems like you really enjoy reading the Wimpy Kid books."
• "Did you see the game yesterday?"
• "Did you see this cute picture of baby lions? It was on the Internet."
• "Did you like the storyteller who came to school yesterday?"
• "I saw your brother the other day."
What matters isn't what you notice about the child. What matters is that you notice the child. This kind of daily connection tells students they don't have to act out to get noticed!
Reprinted with permission from the March 2012 issue of Better Teaching® (Elementary Edition) newsletter. Copyright © 2012 The Teacher Institute®, a division of NIS, Inc. Source: C. Opitz, "Can You See Me? Can You Hear Me"? www.edutopia.org/pdfs/coop_math_bowman/bowman_noticing_kids.pdf.
Four ways to help English Language learners be successful
Students who are learning to speak English come to your classroom from a variety of backgrounds and native languages. So it's difficult to generalize about how you can meet their needs.
However, there are a number of steps that will help most English learners progress. Here are four ideas:
1. Revisit words students "know." English learners need many chances to see, hear and speak a new word before it is truly part of their vocabulary. If you are introducing new vocabulary, include several review words.
2. Use technology to build background. Many of your English learners may know very little about their new country. That makes it much harder to activate background knowledge in a class like social studies. Use videos and Internet sites to help students learn more history.
3. Label everything. Use sticky notes to label items in your classroom--computer, flag, desk, chair. Say them and point to the note so students link the object with how the word reads and sounds.
4. Let students do as much as they can. Assign regular classroom tasks, just as you do with other students. While they're putting the books back on the shelves, they can practice reading the book titles.
Reprinted with permission from the April 2012 issue of Better Teaching® (Elementary Edition) newsletter. Copyright © 2012 The Teacher Institute®, a division of NIS, Inc. Source: J. Cipriano, "32 Tips for ELLs," Scholastic Instructor, September 2011.
What to ask when reading a STEM text
Students can't read textbooks in the STEM areas the same way they read a novel or their history homework. To teach them how to get the most from their text, here are five questions they should ask before they begin:
1. Does the page include the title of this topic? If so, students should pause to think about what they already may have learned about this topic.
2. Are there principles or rules on the page? They will probably be set off in some way--look for colored backgrounds or boxes. These indicate that students should pay special attention.
3. Is there new vocabulary? Usually, these words will be introduced in bold-faced type. If there is a word they don't understand, they should check its meaning on an earlier page or by looking in the glossary.
4. Are there graphs or tables? In math and science texts, these are often as important as the words.
5. Is there a photograph? It's not there just to look nice. Often, photos show a real-world application of the content.
Reprinted with permission from the April 2012 issue of Better Teaching® (Secondary Edition) newsletter. Copyright © 2012 The Teacher Institute®, a division of NIS, Inc. Source: A. Benjamin, But I'm Not a Reading Teacher: Strategies for Literacy Instruction in the Content Areas, Eye on Education Publishers.
Teaching ELLs: It's about helping all students
Helping English language learners become successful in your classroom is not always an either/or proposition. Here are nine ways you can help all your students be more successful.
1. Speak clearly. If you haven't done so, make a video of yourself teaching. Are you easy to understand? Can all students hear you?
2. Explain idioms or colloquialisms. These expressions make language more vivid--but they can also leave some students confused.
3. Use demonstrations whenever possible. Bring in a scientific balance scale when you are showing students about equal values on both sides of the equals sign in algebra. Write model sentences showing parallel construction parallel to each other on the board.
4. Let students try it themselves. Hands-on learning cements understanding.
5. Teach academic language. Learning your discipline is like learning another language--give students the words they need.
6. Build background knowledge. Technology can be a great aid. They may not have seen the Great Wall in person, but they can on the screen.
7. Make all students leaders. Let students take some of the responsibilities for keeping your classroom running smoothly.
8. Give all students a chance to be successful. A think-pair-share strategy will allow more students to formulate their responses.
9. Focus on individuals, not labels. All students have strengths and weaknesses, whether they're labeled gifted or ELL.
Reprinted with permission from the April 2012 issue of Better Teaching® (Secondary Edition) newsletter. Copyright © 2012 The Teacher Institute®, a division of NIS, Inc. Source: R. Wormeli, "Movin' Up to the Middle," Educational Leadership, www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/apr11/vol68/num07/Movin'-Up-to-the-Middle.aspx.
RULES & REGULATIONS:
ESEA Flexibility Package
The complete package that was submitted to US Ed in February by the state of South Dakota is available at http://www.doe.sd.gov/secretary/nexgen_accountability.asp. You will find the package submitted, background information, proposed accountability model, work group members, and a summary about the process.
Title I 2012-13 Allocations
The US Department of Education has indicated they will release Title I allocations in early April. We expect South Dakota’s overall state allocation will be cut by less than 1 percent. However, an individual school district’s allocation could vary considerably more, up or down, than the State’s allocation percentage change. This is due to the updated Census counts used in the formula to allocate Title I funds to districts. This will be the first year that allocations will be based on the 2010 Census. As soon as the allocations are released to the State, we will calculate the district level allocations. Once the calculation process is completed, we will post the allocations at http://www.doe.sd.gov/ofm/grantallocations.asp.
- 2012 South Dakota Early Childhood Education Conference
> - April 12-14, 2012
- 26th Annual TIE Conference - April 15-17, 2012
- 21st Century Community Learning Centers Conference - May 29-30, 2012
- LifeSkills Training - June 6-7, 2012
- ELL/Migrant Education Conference - June 20-21, 2012
- Top 20 Training - July 26-27
- SD Indian Education Summit - Sept. 23-25
- 5th Annual Parent Conference - Oct. 27
- Monthly Title Time Phone Calls
May 8: End of the Year Reports/Q and A