Growth Model Work Group

This growth model work group will help study and make recommendations for a research-based growth to be used as part of South Dakota’s new accountability system. Beginning with the 2014-15 school year, the new system will include academic growth as one of the three indicators that make up the School Performance Index at the elementary and middle school levels.


The seven models the group has been considering include: Gain Score, Residual Gain, Trajectory, Categorical, Projection, Student Growth Percentile, and Multivariate or Value Added.

• The Gain Score growth model describes growth with simple differences of average gains over time.
• The Residual Gain model describes growth as the difference between current status and expected status given past scores.
• The Trajectory model extends gains or average gains in a predictable, usually linear fashion into the future.
• The Categorical model defines growth by transitions among status categories (i.e. Basic, Proficient, Advanced) over time.
• The Projection model uses past scores to predict future scores through regression equations.
• The Student Growth Percentiles model employs a percentile rank of current status in a reference group of students with similar past scores.
• The Multivariate or Value Added model uses entire student score histories, including other subjects and teachers, to direct higher than expected student scores associated with particular teachers.


The group is made up of teachers, administrators, leaders of professional education organizations and other experts from around the state. Members include:

Member List
Marcus Bevier Scott Fossum Matt Gill
Abby Javurek-Humig Kim Kludt Sara Kock
Kamal Kumar Ann Larsen Jennifer Martius
Melissa Mebius April Moen Becky Nelson
Cindy Niederbaumer Tracy Noldner Colleen O'Neil
Daniel Palmer Gay Pickner Lisa Plumb
Susan Smit Darrell Stacey Lennie Symes
Tim Thompson Paul Turman Diana Tyler
Wade Pogany


For more information, contact Abby Javurek-Humig at (605) 773-4708.